The Internet’s leading information-retrieval service is the World Wide Web. People use the Web to obtain and share all kinds of information online, such as by conducting research, visiting social networking sites, purchasing products, reading newspapers and books, watching movies, sharing videos and images, reading and writing blogs, and making bank transactions.
A collection of files and related resources on the Web is known as a Web site. A Web site typically consists of several Web pages, or individual files and associated media. The main or introductory page of a Web site is usually called the site’s home page.
The Web gives users access to a vast array of documents that are linked to each other by means of electronic connections. These connections are variously called hypertext links, hyperlinks, or hot links. Hypertext is a system that creates a branching or network structure and that permits direct jumps to related information. Hypertext links are usually indicated by the highlighting of a word or phrase with a different color or font. Selecting a link calls up additional information, such as the definition of a word, a related Web page, or associated multimedia.
Web files are encoded using a formatting system known as HTML (HyperText Markup Language). This system allows for the display of text, graphics, and audio retrieved over the Internet. HTML markup tags specify document elements such as headings, paragraphs, and tables. A user accesses a Web page by means of a computer program known as a Web browser. The browser interprets the HTML tags, displaying the headings, paragraphs, and tables in a layout that is adapted to the screen size and fonts available to it.
Every resource on the Internet is assigned its own online address, known as a URL (uniform resource locator)—for example, http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize. A URL consists of three parts. The first part indicates the protocol, or set of rules, used for accessing the file.
In the case of Web documents, the protocol is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). The second part of the URL is the domain name (in this case, www.britannica.com). The domain name of a Web site usually begins with “www,” for World Wide Web, followed by the name of the organization or other entity, and typically an abbreviation indicating the type of organization, such as “com” (for commercial sites) or “edu” (for educational sites). All the Web pages that make up a particular Web site share the same unique domain name. The third part of a URL, which is optional, indicates the location of a specific file. For example, the URL http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize instructs the browser to use the HTTP protocol, go to the www.britannica.com Web site, and access the page named “nobelprize.”
A user can access a Web page by simply typing its URL into a Web browser. One can instead search for pages related to a topic of interest by using a program known as a search engine. A user can also move quickly between pages by clicking on hyperlinks incorporated into them.
The World Wide Web was developed by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues at CERN, an international scientific organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, starting in 1989. Berners-Lee wanted to provide researchers with the ability to share their results and techniques without having to exchange e-mail constantly. In 1990–91 he wrote the software for the first Web server (the central repository for the files to be shared) and the first Web client, or browser (the program to access and display files retrieved from the server). He and his colleagues released their text-based Web browser to the general public in 1992.
The World Wide Web did not become truly popular until a graphical Web browser called Mosaic was released in 1993. It was developed in the United States by Marc Andreessen and others at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. Mosaic allowed people using the Web to use the same sort of “point-and-click” graphical manipulations that had been available in personal computers for some years. In 1994 Andreessen cofounded Netscape Communications Corporation, which released the browser Netscape Navigator later that year. It soon became the most popular tool for accessing the Internet, though it was later eclipsed by other browsers, especially Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. By the mid-1990s the World Wide Web had millions of active users.